Urinalysis - Norm and Pathology

Urinalysis - Norm and Pathology

| |  Chemical Pathology

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Various pathological processes affecting the kidneys and the urinary tract, affect the properties of urine, so its research is important for the diagnosis of diseases. Most often explore common urine analysis. The norm of this analysis reveals not only the normal operation of the kidney, but also other organs. Usually explore morning urine collected in a dry, clean container, in an amount up to 200 ml.

Overall analysis consists of three parts, including physical parameters, chemical parameters and microscopy urinary sediment.

Urinalysis: normal physical characteristics

  • The color of urine is caused by the content urochrome, urobilin and other substances. Normally, it may be yellow hue and of different intensities depending on the concentration. The color change is due to the emergence of a large number of erythrocytes and bile pigments, which is always a symptom of a pathology.
  • The smell of urine in norm - specific, but not sharp. Quite often is likened to smell of new-mown hay. The decaying urine has a distinct smell of ammonia. In the presence of ketone bodies it acquires the smell of rotten apples.
  • Specific gravity varies widely and depends on the concentration of salts, urea, and at a pathology - sugar and protein. Normally, the proportion is determined from 1015 to 1028. The stably high specific gravity determined for patients with diabetes, low - in renal failure.
  • Transparency urine. Urine should normally be transparent. Turbidity can be caused by the presence of salts, mucus, bacteria and formed elements of blood.

Urinalysis: normal chemical parameters

Chemical parameters of urine are the reaction, the presence of protein, sugar, bile pigments, bile acids, urobilin, ketone bodies.

An important indicator is considered to be the reaction of urine. The reaction of the blood is maintained at a stable level due to the ability of the kidneys to excrete hydrogen ions and bicarbonate. Average index of urine pH normally ranges about 6.0. In the norm no other chemical indicators should not be.

Traces of protein and a small amount of ketone bodies are admitted. The increase in acidity occurs at renal failure, diabetes, kidney stones, renal tuberculosis and other diseases. The urine acquires alkaline reaction at a vomiting, chronic urinary tract infections, by eating predominantly of plant foods, alkaline mineral water.

The appearance of the protein can be in all diseases of the kidneys with the defeat of the nephrons. Glycosuria, ie the presence of sugar in the urine occurs in diabetes, as well as in liver cirrhosis and thyrotoxicosis.

Urinalysis: normal sediment microscopy

Microscopy of urinary sediment needed in order to identify such substances contained in urine that are located as a suspension and can not be determined by chemical assay. In a precipitate are determined elements of the blood epithelial cells, salt crystals and bacteria.

An important indicator, which reflects the common urine analysis - leukocytes. The norm of this indicator - isolated leukocytes in sight. in the urine of a healthy person also are determined an individual erythrocytes, a small number of squamous cells, isolated hyaline cylinders. Increasing the number of erythrocytes is called hematuria, and happens in the defeat of the kidney, the urinary tract trauma, diseases of the bladder.

Leukocyturia - a significant amount of white blood cells under the microscope, happens in inflammatory process in the kidneys or urinary tract. The same can be said of a large number of epithelial cells, whose appearance in large numbers also happens with intoxication and infectious diseases.

Crystals of the salts in the form urate, oxalates and phosphates are formed in urolithiasis. Normally urine is sterile, the appearance in it of bacteria indicates the presence of a bacterial inflammation of the urinary tract.

We reviewed  that shows the urinalysis. Any deviations from normal parameters require attention because they can be a symptom of diseases of the kidneys or other organs.

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