Fetal period is the most important and most vulnerable in the fetal life. At this time in the embryo are formed his major organs and systems - organogenesis. Now the embryo is extremely sensitive to the impact of unfavorable factors that can lead to major malformations. In the first 8 weeks of life, the fetus does not yet have independent functions, so its well-being depends entirely on organism of mother. For the fetus the mother's body is the external environment. The child is entirely dependent on its quality.
Research carried out by scientists from different specialties, confirm that the adverse influence on the baby may have a variety viral, bacterial diseases of the mother, as well as bad habits - smoking, alcoholism, drug addiction.
Viral diseases of mother
Rubellaand Measles - Sometimes a mother's contact with rubella patients is enough to the fetus ill. The disease, which in children, as a rule, proceeds easily, produces catastrophic destruction in the organism of the child, if he is struck by the rubella virus in utero during the first trimester of pregnancy. The virus enters the embryo through the blood mother's. In this case, a very high probability of stillbirth, or a child with developmental disabilities: cerebral lesions, heart, hearing analyzer, skin, bone, liver, spleen, kidneys. Among the late complications can be called deafness, glaucoma, microcephaly, hydrocephalus, encephalopathy (a consequence of an organic lesion of the brain), severe neurodevelopmental disability, later closing sutures and fontanelles, diabetes, thyroid disease.
Cytomegalovirus - The causative agent belongs to the group of herpes viruses. It is also called virus salivary glands, since it is localized in their cells present in the body, but does not manifest itself. However, the woman, cytomegalovirus carrier, may through blood to infect the embryo or fetus, and then begins the disease process, which often leads to severe lesions child. Baby is born before term, jaundiced, with defects of eyes, bones, hearing. In the future, develop deafness, blindness, cirrhosis of the liver, intestine, kidney, and other. If a person is a carrier of the pathogen of the woman must be alert against cytomegalovirus.
Herpes. Most people are carriers of the herpes virus. It makes itself felt in that moment, when the immune defense of the body for one reason or another is reduced. But if herpes does not cause much harm to the child and the adult, then for the fetus it is a very serious injury. Because herpes virus prefers to develop in nervous tissue, a child is born, usually with damage to the central nervous system. He can fetally to transfer meningoencephalitis, the consequences of which for the newborn is microcephaly, edema of the brain, blindness, impaired development, shortening of the limbs.
Flu. If a woman becomes infected during the first trimester of pregnancy, there is a risk for the child. But if illness proceeds relatively easy, the violations of the child's health is not usually observed. Only in very severe flu in the mother the baby can be born with the effects of fetally infectious diseases. If a woman is getting the flu at a late stage of pregnancy. In this case, the child may be born prematurely with reduced reactivity of the organism - more susceptible to infectious diseases. Therefore, even a mild form of influenza in late pregnancy should be taken very seriously, immediately contact your doctor.
Viral hepatitis - if it is infected by viruses of type B and delta, childbirth can occur prematurely. The child will be born with intrauterine hypotrophy and hepatitis. At the newborn observed bleeding, liver enlargement, violation of its functions. 20% of these children die in the first months after birth, 40% - live up to 2 years, 40% of children are cured, and they grow up healthy.
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. The available data suggest that the probability of such a transmission is rather high and ranges from 30 to 50%. Currently, all women are checked in the first months of pregnancy, the presence in the blood of HIV antibodies. In the case of a positive response when tested women showing abortion because of the high probability of infection of the fetus.
Bacterial diseases of mother
Tuberculosis - If a woman is surrounded by a TB patient, it is necessary to consult a doctor. If she is sick TB, it must first be cured, because otherwise her pregnant, will have to take antibiotics, which are ambiguous effects on the fetus. TB process can occur or worsen during bearing the child.
Listeriosis - The causative agent of the disease - bacteria to the fetus transfer through the placenta. Contamination can occur through poorly processed meat and milk, and also in contact with diseased animals. But it is possible, and secondary infection of the fetus: isolating the pathogen in the urine, it will infect the amniotic fluid, falling in his airways. There is a severe fetal pneumonia. Amniotic Infection occurs and when bacteria enter into the uterus of the mother's. In women suffering from listeriosis, children are often born with a generalized form of infection - sepsis. They have an enlarged liver and spleen, in the first hours of life jaundice, rash appears on the skin. At infection of the child during childbirth, in the future, can develop brain edema and encephalopathy.
Syphilis. The fetus can become infected just from a sick mother. The disease can occur in women not only in acute but also in the latent form. Treponema pallidum affects the fetus most often 6-7 months pregnant. The consequence of the infection can be miscarriage or stillbirth. However, the disease can manifest itself at any age up to 16-17 years. With early congenital syphilis affects the skin (syphilitic rash), mucous membranes, bone, pancreas, liver, brain, and further develops brain dropsy, syphilitic rhinitis. In case of late congenital syphilis primarily affects the central nervous system.
Streptococcal infection. If a pregnant woman has a chronic infection, such as tonsillitis, sinusitis, inflammatory diseases of the urinary tract, they can cause serious damage to the fetus. A child is born with symptoms of intracranial injury, respiratory failure, observed angiostaxis, lethargy. Often children die soon after birth. In the dead children found hemorrhages in meninges, brain tissue, lung tissue. If the child does not die immediately, the disease progresses: affects the lungs and central nervous system.
Dr. Alessandro Ghidini, MD works in
Alexandria, Virginia is a specialist in Fetal Medicine & Maternal Medicine, Obstetrics & Gynecology, Clinical Genetics and graduated Universita degli Studi di Milano in 1982. Dr. Ghidini is affiliated with Inova Alexandria Hospital and practicing for 37 years
Dr. Alfred D Fleming, MD works in
Omaha, Nebraska is a specialist in Fetal Medicine & Maternal Medicine and graduated Creighton University Medical Center in 1988. Dr. Flemingand practicing for 35 years
Dr. Allahyar Jazayeri, MD works in
Wausau, Wisconsin is a specialist in Fetal Medicine & Maternal Medicine, Obstetrics & Gynecology and graduated University Of Texas Med Branch in 1992. Dr. Jazayeri is affiliated with Aspirus Wausau Hospital and practicing for 27 years
Dr. Amanda Horton, MD works in
Arlington Heights, Illinois is a specialist in Fetal Medicine & Maternal Medicine. Dr. Horton is affiliated with Skokie Hospital, Highland Park Hospital, Glenbrook Hospital, Evanston Hospital, Saint Francis Hospital