Anemia during pregnancy - danger, the reasons of occurrence, treatment

Anemia during pregnancy - danger, the reasons of occurrence, treatment

| |  Hematology

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Anemia - a pathological condition of the body, which is characterized by low hemoglobin and red blood cells. There are several kinds of the disease.

Anemia during pregnancy is most often - iron deficiency. Its appearance due to the fact that hemoglobin and iron maternal organism, primarily flows to the fetus. If a woman eats incorrectly, in her body, occurs iron deficiency and develops anemia.

Causes of Anemia during Pregnancy

Furthermore, that during gestation grows the need of a female body in iron, there are other the reasons of occurrence anemia. The main ones are:

  • Hormonal disorders of expectant mother;
  • Exacerbations of chronic diseases in which is disturbed absorption of iron by the body;
  • Poor nutrition, in which the body is not getting enough foods containing iron, folic acid, vitamin B;
  • Frequent pregnancies, between which the less than two years;
  • Abounding or multiple pregnancy;
  • A woman's age is less than 17 years of age or over 35 years old;
  • Low blood pressure for a long time;
  • Miscarriages or bleeding during previous pregnancies.

Factors that provoke the development of the disease:

  • Toxemia of pregnancy (frequent vomiting reduces the absorption of iron in the body);
  • Gynecological diseases of women;
  • Commitment to vegetarianism, the diet before pregnancy;
  • Diseases of the hematopoietic system in women.


Symptoms of Anemia in Pregnancy

Depending on the level of hemoglobin in the blood, the degree of anemia are:

  • Easy - the content of hemoglobin in the blood 110-90 g / l;
  • Average - the hemoglobin level is 89-80 g / l;
  • Heavy - hemoglobin levels less than 80 g / l.

Mild form practically does not manifest itself: the symptoms that signal any changes in an organism, are virtually absent. Anemia can be be suspected in the case, if the skin pregnant is characterized by paleness. Therefore great importance attaches to regular blood tests: they will help specialists in time to determine the presence or absence, as well as prevent the development of anemia in pregnant women. Since anemia can have very serious consequences for the development of the fetus, the state of the mother, as well as affect the course of childbirth, it is necessary from the first weeks of pregnancy to take preventive measures to avoid the development of the disease.

Symptoms of anemia during pregnancy begin to appear in the moderate to severe stages of the disease. Specialists distinguish two manifestations of the syndrome of anemia:

Common-anemic (associated with a deficit of oxygen in the tissues of the body) - includes fatigue, weakness, headache, dizziness, fainting, pale skin and mucous tissue, palpitation sensation, shortness of breath. A woman becomes a whiny, irritable, reduced concentration and memory.

Sideropenic (resulting from a violation of the tissue supply) - is characterized by changes in the skin (peeling, dryness, cracking), the deterioration of the hair, nails break down, exfoliate. In addition, a pregnant woman suffering from lesions of the gastrointestinal tract, atrophic gastritis, dysphagia (difficulty or pain when swallowing), change of smell and taste.

The consequences of anemia in pregnancy

As is well known, hemoglobin is the main supplier of oxygen and nutrients to the fetus. With its deficit at the kid develops oxygen deprivation, lack of necessary for growth and development of nutrients.

Thus, are possible the following effects of anemia in pregnancy:

  • Hypoxia (oxygen deprivation) fruit;
  • Miscarriage or premature birth;
  • The sharp decrease in blood pressure;
  • The early placental abruption (partial or complete separation of the placenta from the uterine lining), which can lead to complications of pregnancy and fetal death;
  • Early rupture of membranes;
  • Intrauterine pathology of the fetus;
  • Easing the birth process;
  • Bleeding during childbirth;
  • Susceptibility to infectious diseases after childbirth in women and child.

 

Treatment of Anemia in Pregnancy

Treatment of this disease is usually carried out in a complex and a long time. It includes iron supplementation, vitamins, special diet.

For each pregnant woman is individually selected iron supplements. The physician determines the dosing means, the duration of treatment, depending on the degree of allergy, general condition of the woman, the presence of concomitant diseases. Iron medication is recommended to wash down with the juice from citrus fruit, since it contains a lot of vitamin C, which contributes to a better absorption of iron.

Of great importance in the fight against anemia belongs to a special diet. You can use it to get rid of this disease at mild severity. In other cases, such a diet is an essential part of effective treatment. A feature of the diet at an anemia of future mother is the presence in its diet of a sufficient number of foods rich in iron and protein.

Menu women suffering from anemia during pregnancy, should include fish (150-250 grams per day), meat (120-200 grams per day), one egg per day. In the woman's daily diet should be about 800 grams of vegetables and fruits (pomegranate, apples, cabbage, carrots, black currants, apricots, asparagus). The daily rate of dairy products (milk, kefir, yogurt, cottage cheese, cheese) - 500-800 grams. Also, to expectant mothers for the treatment and prevention of anemia is recommended to enter in the menu offal, almonds, walnuts, buckwheat, cocoa.

There are foods that interfere with iron absorption, so during pregnancy, their use should be minimized. These products include bran, legumes and grains, black and green tea, green leafy vegetables (spinach), products containing preservatives, colorings, flavorings.

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