This introductory article conveys a holistic understanding of type 1 diabetes and its treatment. So, explore the core fundamentals of this ailment in order to find the best way to manage it. What is Type 1 Diabetes mellitus?
It is commonly known as a juvenile diabetes. This type of diabetes is relatively rare and commonly occurs in small children. There are different types of diabetes. Type 1 diabetes occurs in 5 -10% of the population while type 2 diabetes occurs in 90% of the population. Type 1 and type 2 diabetes are distinct in several aspects. The primary difference in type 1 and type 2 diabetes is the intensity. The beta cells in a pancreas get attacked by white blood cells and, therefore, stop the production of insulin in type 1 diabetes. Due to unhealthy diet and lifestyle, body develops a gradual resistance to insulin, thus, the reduced quantity of insulin becomes ineffective in sugar management in type 2 diabetes.
What is a treatment for type 1 diabetes?
The four pillars of treatment for this type of diabetes are:
• Insulin injection and other medication: Most type 1 diabetes patients need an insulin injection or an insulin pump for maintaining enough insulin in a body. Different types of insulin are available for the diabetics. i.e. rapid-acting insulin, long-acting insulin, intermediate options, etc. So, as per recommendation of your diabetes specialist, you will need to take insulin.
• Diet management: Different types of diabetes offer a different leeway for sugar cravings and indulgences. Type 2 patients can have more leeway than type 1 patients because of some amount of insulin produced, in their body. So, a diabetic diet is designed for a healthy balance of nutrients as per activity, age, schedule and personal choices. Type 1 diabetics must adhere to this customized diabetic diet plan.
• Blood sugar monitoring: A body of type 1 diabetic produces zero or little insulin. So, careful monitoring is the only way to maintain blood sugar levels within target range. Unpredictable rise and fall in blood sugar is seen in spite of strict adherence to medication and diet. This type of diabetes remains unpredictable. Thus, frequent monitoring during a day is vital.
• Risk management: Certain factors can increase the risk of diabetes. This is applicable to all types of diabetes. But, few are more pertinent to type 1 diabetes; smoking, drinking, etc. However, a diabetic must remain cautious while doing important activities like driving or working. This is more pertinent to this type of diabetes due to unanticipated and sudden fluctuations in blood sugar levels.
In conclusion, all types of diabetes require restraint, but, different diabetes types require different treatment for successful management. It is possible to live an active life with type 1 diabetes. But complications are much higher in pregnancy as is the risk of high blood pressure and cholesterol problems.