Radiation Oncology - area of medicine in which is investigated applying of ionizing radiation for treating oncological diseases. more
What is a Radiation Oncology
Radiation Oncology includes diagnostic and treatment methods in oncology, which are carried out with the use of ionizing radiation sources.
Radiation Oncology uses radiation to kill cancer cells by destroying their ability the reproduce. Therapeutic radiation oncology is used for the treatment or control of cancer tumors, as well as for relief of symptoms associated with cancerous diseases.
Radiation dose will be assigned by radiation oncologist depending on the type of cancer tumor, its location, and radiation sensitivity of the surrounding tissue.
Radiation therapy oncologist is obliged to possess skills of work on the simulator, computed tomography, computer planning system to be able to calculate the probability of tumor resorption with assumed mode of irradiation, to determine the likelihood of complications in normal organs and tissues, their prevention and treatment, to carry out a combined pharmacological and radiation treatment, use appropriate radiomodifiers, immobilization agents, etc.
Methods ofRadiation Oncology
The main directions of radiation oncology are radiotherapy and radiosurgery.
Radiation therapyinvolves the use of wide beams of ionizing radiation. Carrying radiotherapy usually takes several sessions and is one of the most common ways to treat cancer. It applies to many types of cancer and the stage, either as an independent method of therapy or in combination with others, such as radiochemotherapy. Radiotherapy is also used in palliative purposes.
Radiation therapy may be distant, when the patient is located at a certain distance from the radiation source, superficial (with application of radioactive preparations are imposed on certain areas of the body), intracavitary (treatment of hollow bodies), intratumoral (in tumor tissue is injected nylon tubes with a radioactive charged).
Depending on the type of ionizing radiation used are distinguished roentgenotherapy, gamma-therapy, beta-therapy, electrons, neutrons, protons, heavy ions therapy, alpha therapy. The choice depends on the radiosensitivity of tumor formation.
Radiosurgery - is based on use narrow directional beam of high intensity radiation.
Radiosurgery may be used to treat any cancer primary and metastatic origin, but only in the case where a pathologic nidus is less than 3 cm in diameter. Exposure to radiating radiation is carried out once (Gamma Knife, CyberKnife) or multiple sessions (linac). After treatment, the tumor gradually decreases in size, and a few weeks later disappear completely. The most widely method is used in removal of tumors of the brain and spinal cord.
The main tasks of Radiation Oncology today are the maximum effective of impacts with minimal risk of complications from the treatment.
It is provided by an accurate selection of the range of radiation (high-intensity radiation does not damage the surface tissue), accurate summarizing (brachytherapy and conformal radiotherapy), a decrease in the duration of radiation exposure due to the use of irradiation at different angles, as well as the possibility during one session of radiation therapy to carry out on an unlimited number of destinations (using special devices that form the shape of the beam).