Developmental-Behavioral Pediatricians evaluate and provide treatment and referrals for children with a wide range of developmental and behavioral concerns. more
Disturbances of mental development is a mental state characterized by a slow pace of formation of personality and mental functions, as well as disturbances in mental and cognitive abilities.
Symptomsand causesof mentaldevelopment
Mental development are manifested most commonly in infancy and childhood. These psychological disorders are associated with a variety of factors, injuries and abnormalities. The main causes of mental development are:
hereditary pathologies of the brain; chromosomal diseases;
vices of the brain;
lesions and pathologies of the central nervous system;
hydrocephalus; severe diseases of the nervous system, and neurocutaneous syndromes;
hereditary endocrine diseases;
disorders and diseases of the sense organs;
lack of upbringing and pedagogical neglect.
Disturbances of mental development in children are manifested in the form of underdevelopment, damage of personal development and a lack of self-determination, inability to mental retardation and problems with cognition, psychopathy and distortion (autism).
Disturbances of mental development of children are expressed in a significant lag in the development of their peers, slowing of mental formation, inconsistencies in behavior and perception with age norms. These disorders begin to manifest themselves at an early age, and they are often associated with brain dysfunction.
In determining the causes disturbances of mental development of the child must take into account the temperament, the presence of somatic and cerebral pathologies, the emotional state and deprivation.
To the biological reasons of violations include pathologies during pregnancy, prematurity, birth and post-partum trauma, physical illness and brain injuries.
Mental development can be caused by social factors, including the lack of attention and a separation from the mother, social isolation, lack of education, training and development, unfavorable conditions in the family and society.
Typesdisturbances of mentaldevelopment
dysontogenesis, including damaged, delayed, and distorted development;
irreversible mental underdevelopment;
disharmonious mental development;
degenerative mental development related to epilepsy and other diseases;
pathological mental development, caused by psychic and somatic pathologies.
Also there are types disturbances of mental development of schizophrenic process: asynchrony, retardation and mental retardation.
In some cases are manifested clinical forms of violations, including acceleration, infantilism, autism and somatopatiya, impaired mental development, oligophrenia - uncomplicated, neurodynamic, analyzer and psychopathic form.
Prevention of mental disorders should begin to conduct a regular inspection and consultation to the pediatrician, as well as verification of psychomotor reactions in children.
Condition of mental development must determine a speech therapist, child psychologist, pediatrician and pathologist. Accurate diagnosis of the child and the type disturbances of mental development can be determined using a diagnostic survey.
Prevention of mental development based on the use of special medical, pedagogical, psychological and social methods to verify the child.
To conduct effective prevention disturbances of mental development is necessary to exclude family conflicts, avoid physical and psychological trauma during pregnancy, and should create a favorable environment for the development of the child. Sessions with a psychologist - a component of the treatment of disorders of mental development.
Features of Treatmentin Pediatric Developmental Behavioral
The main objective of treatment is long-term correction of child development.
At disturbances of psychic development is prescribed certain types of rehabilitation. These include:
Correction of psychological character, including sessions with defectologist and psychologist aimed at restoring cognitive function, speech and memory, emotional perception, communication and social adaptation;
Correction of speech therapy, aimed at creating the proper speech and sound formation, elimination of defects pronunciation runningaway skills and abilities for the content of speech;
Sensory exercises with a psychologist for the restoration of sensitivity, improving of perception and psychological relief;
Hardware exercises with biofeedback aimed at training of attention and memorizing, regulation of the child's own perception; relaxation exercises;
Physical therapy and exercises to promote physical and mental development; thermal, water and electroprocedures.
An important step in the treatment of disorders of psychological development is the individual training and development program for the child, special intellectual exercise, art, music and dance classes.