Family and Marriage Counseling - a purposeful psychological impact on the family and its members for the purpose of recovery, optimization of its functioning and improvement of relations between its members, the creation of favorable of intrafamily conditions for development family and its members. Family Counseling is designed to assist the families in resolving family conflicts, as well as is directed to prevention, warning more
Modern family and its problems serve as the object of study series of sciences - psychology, pedagogy, sociology, demography and economics. Experts studying the dynamics of emotional relationships in marriage, causes of loneliness in the family and its decay, features of family education.
Family counseling is the most popular to date view of psychological counseling, aimed at resolving the family problems.
Psychological assistance to the family in the form of counseling and family therapy is increasingly recognized. The main tasks of family counseling are:
• advice on marriage, the search a marriage partner;
• advising on the marital relationship;
• psychological assistance to the family in crisis situations and divorce;
• psychological follow of pregnancy and childbirth;
• psychological support of formation of parenthood;
• counseling on problems child-parent relationships;
• counseling on mental development and upbringing children including risk groups and gifted children;
• Psychological assistance in matters for Adoption and parenting; accompaniment of the adoptive family;
• psychological preventive maintenance of development children, being brought up "without a family";
• psychological assistance in case of family violence;
• psychological assistance in a situation of chronic serious illness, loss of a family member;
• psychological support to families with disabled persons, persons with limited health abilities.
There are various forms of psychological assistance to families, which uses counseling psychologist in the implementation of family counseling. Following to certain the provisions fundamental advisory model, depends primarily matter what nature of the difficulties existing in this particular family.
Consider the basic model (paradigm) counseling families.
The pedagogical model is based on the hypothesis (assumption) the lack of pedagogical competence of parents. The object of the complaint in this case - his child. Consultant psychologist, together with parents analyze the situation, offers a program of measures for its correction. Psychologist focused on optimal from the standpoint of pedagogy and psychology, methods of education and methods of formation of the person.
The social model is used in cases when family difficulties mainly are the result of adverse life circumstances of one or more family members. For example, a bad social situation (negative social and psychological conditions) of the development of the child. In these cases, in addition to the analysis of situations of families in general and appropriate psychological and pedagogical advice of a psychologist-consultant is required to attract sources of this situation: a kindergarten teacher, nurse, school teacher, school psychologist, as well as classmates, classmates, friends, baby.
The diagnostic model is based from the assumption that there is a deficit special knowledge in the parents about their child or their family. The object of diagnosis - family and children or adolescents with disorders and deviations in behavior. Diagnostic conclusion can serve as a basis for adoption organizational decisions about an arbitrary change of relationships in the family, by, for example, the redistribution of family responsibilities.
Psychological model is used when the reasons for the difficulties of interaction of spouses and / or children lie in the region of communication, consist in personal features of the family members. The medical model of family counseling suggests that the basis of family difficulties lay physical illnesses of family members. Tasks counseling - medical diagnosis, medical treatment of patients, psychological and social adaptation of the healthy family members to the sick family members.
Counselling families, it is primarily the interaction, the establishment of an emotional psychological contact with his family. A certain dynamics of such contacts Consultant psychologist with the family, creates the conditions for self-disclosure of each of the family members.
In the course of the psychological work, counseling psychologist creates new forms of communication of family members with each other. This "personal-marital disclosure" in the future is expressed in the positive transformation of the behavioral-activity-related stereotypes of each of the family members. The positive dynamics of relationships within the family depends on social factors, on the duration of the joint psychological work of family members with a psychologist, and from the internal resources of each individual.