Complex of Sciences, covering medical, biological, engineering and other scientific research and activities aimed at ensuring the safety and create optimal conditions for human activity in space flight and exit into space. more
Space sickness can be caused by the influence of weightlessness on the organs of hearing and vision. Doctors can not predict in advance who is sick of future astronauts in flight. Specially used for the prevention of painful symptoms medications that are used on Earth, in space do not apply.
The Cases involving violations of the health of astronauts, now has more than a hundred. There is a wide field of activities of doctors working in the field of space medicine and specialists in the creation of life-support systems of spacecraft crews.
One of the strategies of space biology and medicine is the identification and study of the links between changes in the body during space flight, and cellular mechanisms underlying these changes. Disclosure of these mechanisms contributes to the creation of better and more effective means of preventing the adverse effects of microgravity on humans.
According to recent data, to ensure the normal life and health of a member of the crew of a ship a day, roughly, is required: 640 g completely digestible food (dry weight), 2200 g of water, 882 g of oxygen, 2 g of salt, vitamins and others Additional factors supply. To protect people from the adverse effects of some factors of outer space and space flight is necessary to study their biological effects that made their reproduction in the laboratory for special installations and stands (centrifuges, shakers, hyperbaric chambers, nuclear accelerators). However, in the terrestrial conditions reproduce the a prolonged state of weightlessness, the impact of heavy nuclei cosmic rays Is not possible.
On the human (or animal) in space flight can be influenced by three main groups of factors:
Factors that characterize cosmic space as a kind of environment - extreme degree of rarefaction, ionizing cosmic radiation, especially the thermal regime, meteoric matter, and so on.
Factors associated with the dynamics of flight the missile aircraft - acceleration, vibration, noise, weightlessness.
Factors associated with prolonged stay in the artificial environment of the small volume of pressurized cabins, - isolation, weakness, emotional stress, especially the daily periodicals regime of work and rest, and so on.
A serious problem is the protection of the crew from the spacecraft cosmic radiation. The biological effect of cosmic rays understudied, especially in conjunction with congestion, vibration, fluctuations in barometric pressure, a possible change in the composition of the gaseous medium in the cockpit of spacecraft and space suit, as well as others Unfavorable factors of flight.