Goiter diffuse, or Basedow's disease

Goiter diffuse, or Basedow's disease

| |  Diabetes, Metabolism & Endocrinology

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Causes

The main cause of Diffuse Goiter - insufficient intake into an organism of the iodine. Iodine is essential for the production of thyroid hormones - triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4). When entering the body of small amounts of iodine occurs compensatory increase in the thyroid gland (goiter).

The reason for the formation and development of diffuse goiter are:

  • hereditary;
  • chronic disease affecting the respiratory organs;
  • nutritional deficiency of trace elements selenium, manganese, zinc, cobalt, molybdenum, copper as well excess calcium;
  • psychiatric disorders;
  • the impact of infectious and inflammatory processes (worm infestation, chronic diseases);
  • poor sanitation and hygiene, social conditions.

Types of diseases by the degree of increase of the thyroid gland:

  • Degree I - in normal posture of the head, it cannot be seen; it is only found by palpation
  • Degree II - the struma is palpative and can be easily seen
  • Degree III - the struma is very large and is retrosternal

    Symptoms of Goiter

    Symptoms of Goiter depends on the size, shape, goiter, the functional state of the gland. Patients may complain of fatigue, headache, general weakness, unpleasant feelings in the heart.

    With increasing goiter, as well as compression of adjacent organs there are complaints of a feeling of pressure in the neck, especially in the prone position, attacks of a dyspnea (compression of the trachea), dry cough, difficulty breathing and swallowing.

    Severe manifestation of the disease is cretinism (since childhood): pronounced lag in mental, physical, mental development, tongue-tied, short stature, delayed bone maturation, deaf-mutism.

    If you experience any symptoms of diffuse goiter should consult a doctor-endocrinologist.

    Diagnostics includes:

    • Ultrasound examination of the thyroid gland;
    • Determination in blood levels of thyrotropin T3, T4;
    • A study of 131 I uptake by the thyroid gland;
    • A study of iodine excretion in the urine;
    • Immunogram: the content of immunoglobulins, B and T lymphocyte subpopulations of T-lymphocytes, the microsomal fraction of follicular epithelium, antibodies to thyroglobulin;
    • Determination the concentration in the blood of thyroglobulin;
    • Needle biopsy of the thyroid gland;
    • Radioisotope scanning of the thyroid gland;
    • X-rays of the esophagus with large goiter size.

      Treatment and Prevention of Diffuse Goiter

      Tactics of treatment depends on the extent of the increase, and the state of the thyroid gland.

      • With a significant increase in the size of the gland (first degree goiter) is usually prescribed drugs potassium iodide with intermittent use, it is recommended the use of foods rich in iodine.
      • If you have thyroid hypofunction used synthetic thyroid hormone analogues, combination therapies (levothyroxine sodium). Treatment is carried out under the control of the level of thyroid hormones in the blood.
      • When nodular form goiter, large or fast-growing nodes, compressing the surrounding organs, surgical treatment goiter. For the prevention of recurrence of goiter after surgery prescribed thyroid hormones.

      Prevention of goiter carried out by method adding a salt of iodide or potassium iodate - iodization. Recommended intake of food rich in iodine: persimmons, walnuts, sea fish, seafood, seaweed.

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